Topic that has been neglected in this materialistic human society is known as “disable”, those people are considered part of this class who lack speed to catch life due to their medical and born disabilities. Blinds, deaf, mentally disable and people with permanent diseases are considered as part of this.
Whole world is trying to give them sympathy, an international organization is considered as their caretaker, but it is realty that they are not getting much sympathy and attention as they deserve. Their problems cannot be solved with temporary actions, strong practical decisions and long lasting actions are required for permanent solution. Sympathy for disable is requirement of human nature but only Islam gave this feeling a right direction, has explained different rights of disable in detail, one part of Islamic Laws has been designated for their rights. Below is the detailed discussion about the rights and facilities of disables in society, economy, religion and politics as per Islam.
Social rights and facilities:
Islam has never imposed and kind of social burden on disable, they are free from difficulties of income. All those Quranic verses and Ahadees where inculcation of good behavior and charity has been done for weak and helpless people its explanation also include disable people in it. There are a lot of Fiqa books on the topic of financially helping relatives (اقارب نفقہ) , they also say that we should help disable financially and socially. Allama Kasani رحمت اللہ علیہ has written one important and basic condition of helping relatives, while explaining he says: “ in family if there are some poor, disable or helpless, Majnoon or blinds then their help is compulsory on relatives who capable of helping them. (Badae Alsnaa 446/4) these were the rights of disable as per family, in Islamic state look after and rights of disable which were due on government was marvelous. Allama Shibli رحمت اللہ علیہ writes in “ AlFarooq”: (in the era of Hazrat Umer Farooq رضی اللہ عنہ) it was order and it was always obeyed that all the disable should get salaries from Bait Ul Maal. There were hundred thousands of men admitted in army officer who used to get food while sitting at home; it was ordered they should be paid from Bait Ul Maal.” (Al Farooq: 196/2,197).
However at government level financial facilities that were given to Muslim disable, those were equally distributed to non-Muslim disables, at one more point Allam Sahib writes: “there was a rule that any Muslim who was disable or got old and was unable to earn money, his pension was allocated by Bait Ul Maal. Non-Muslim also used to get similar and sometime more pension.” (Al Farooq 157/2)
Sayed Qutub Shaheed Late writes: “Hazrat Umer Farooq رضی اللہ عنہ, saw an old blind man begging on a door, on inquiring he found that he was Jew, He رضی اللہ عنہ asked him: what brought till this situation? He answered: tribute (جزیہ), need and old age. Hazrat Umer Farooq رضی اللہ عنہ, hold his hand and took him to his home and gave him so much that was enough to fulfill his need at that time. Then رضی اللہ عنہ , send massage to treasurer that give attention to him and others like him, I swear to Allah this is not justice that we enjoy his income of youth and neglect him in old age. He رضی اللہ عنہ, give relief to him all people like him from (جزیہ). When He رضی اللہ عنہ was travelling for Damascene He رضی اللہ عنہ passed from a village where there lived few ill Christians, He رضی اللہ عنہ ordered that help them from Zakat and grant them food.” (AlAdala AlAjtimaya Fil Islam, Urdu: 378)
One Shabi رضی اللہ عنہ who had bit problem in eyes and also had a little bit mental problem often got cheated during purchase, Due to him and other people like him HE ﷺ made a rule in purchase: according to which buyer and seller got 3 days’ time to finalize their deal. (Takmalah Fatah Almalham: 378,382)
Social rights and compensations:
Islam gave courage to disable people to live within society and not to live alone, also allotted them social duties as per their location and status, gave protection to from inferiority complex and social discrimination. Abdullah Bin Am Maktom رضی اللہ عنہ was a blind Sahabi. Once he رضی اللہ عنہ visited Prophet ﷺ to find solution for a problem at that time HE ﷺ was talking with few people of Quresh on Islam, HE ﷺ didn’t like time of his question. And suddenly Sura Abas came, in which HIS ﷺ this behavior was little bit reproached. It is narrated that after this whenever that blind person visited Prophet ﷺ, HE ﷺ used to welcome with respect and said: Welcome! O companion! Related to who ALLAH warned me. When HE ﷺ went to War of Ohad HE ﷺ appointed this blind person Abdullah Bin Am Maktom رضی اللہ عنہ as his vice. (Al Sera Tan Nabwiah La Bin Hasham, Hasham:3/17) think upon it that what a big post is given to a blind man and once HE ﷺ called a Jazami Man to eat with him. (Takmla Fateh Almlham: 4/372) Saeed Bin Yarboe رضی اللہ عنہ, was a Shabi who lost his eye sight. Hazrat Omar رضی اللہ عنہ , inquired him that why don’t you come in Jummah? He replied: I don’t have a person who show me path, Hazrat Omar رضی اللہ عنہ appointed a person to be with him. (Al Farooq 2/205) during the Khilafat era of Hazrat Abubakar رضی اللہ عنہ Hazrat Omar رضی اللہ عنہ used visit a blind women of Madina to inquire about her living conditions, then He رضی اللہ عنہ, noticed that whenever He came to her he used to see that Hazrat Abubakar رضی اللہ عنہ did her work. (Islam Mai Adal Ijtamai, Qutab Shaheed: 382)
Islamic rights and compensations:
Many Ibadat which require physical fitness, Islam has exempted or gave another way to disable people. If they are rich but disable for Hajj they have option of Hajj badal and for fasting they have option of Fidiyah, they are also exempted from Huge Ibadat such as Jihad. Saying of ALLAH: “There is not upon the blind any guilt or upon the lame any guilt or upon the ill any guilt.” (Al Fatah 17) blind or lame, both of these are essential, Sahaba like these were exempted form Jihad, these disable were promised that they will get equal Sawab while sitting in their home. On the occasion of Ghazwa Tabook HE ﷺ said to people participating in Jihad about disable people that behind you in Madina there are few people who get equal bounty (Sawab) as of you when you pass from any valley or travel. Shaba رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہم اجمعین
Inquired: how is this possible while they are in Madinah? HE ﷺ Answered: “excuse has stopped them there.” (Bukhari, Kitab al jihad)
Political and combat related rights and benefits:
Before Islam there was no difference between fighters and non-fighters, every person of enemy was considered as enemy and rules of war were equal for every group and level. No one was save from it not even women, old, ill, wounded. (Al Jihad Fil Islam 198)(Bashukar Khatme Nabowat)